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Ce: 1 Program for Emerging Infections (PEI), Infectious Ailments Division (IDD), icddr,b, 68, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh Full list of author information and facts is readily available at the end of your short article?2016 The Author(s). Open Access This short article is distributed below the terms of your Creative Commons Attribution four.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, offered you give proper credit for the original author(s) along with the supply, offer a hyperlink for the Inventive Commons license, and indicate if changes were produced. The Inventive Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies towards the information produced readily available within this article, unless otherwise stated.Rimi et al. BMC Public Well being (2016) 16:Page two ofBackground The spread of your very pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among poultry and humans has raised title= journal.pcbi.1005422 international issues and has motivated government and public well being organizations to initiate interventions to stop the transmission of HPAI in diverse countries [1?]. In 2006, the Government of Bangladesh adopted a national pandemic influenza preparedness plan that included risk communication through mass media, workshops, posters, and leaflets, and disseminated a set of 10-step messages to prevent poultry to human transmission nationwide [10, 11]. A nationwide survey carried out in 2007 showed that 30 of backyard poultry raisers reported obtaining heard of avian influenza; amongst these who heard, 53 didn't know any of its indicators, 78 did not know how birds contracted the virus, and also the most frequently (38 ) pointed out route of human infection was an incorrect belief that individuals have been infected by eating meat or eggs of infected poultry [12]. Backyard poultry raisers are rural residents, who raise indigenous breeds with less than 50 free-range chickens, ducks, and/or geese per flock reared around the family's domicile [13]. A subsequent qualitative study amongst backyard poultry raisers conducted in 2008 found that even when the Government of Bangladesh's preventive messages reached the community, backyard raisers either didn't know about avian influenza or did not believe that avian influenza could infect humans and most continued their usual practices of handling and slaughtering of sick poultry and disposal of dead poultry [14]. A principal pathway of human infection with the HPAI virus is close speak to with infected birds [15?7]. Handling and slaughtering of sick and dead poultry has been related with quite a few human circumstances of H5N1 and has been identified as a few of the most risky behaviors for contagion [15, 18?2]. Bangladesh has reported 549 confirmed poultry outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 in 52 out of 64 districts from 2007 to 2013 [23] and seven human H5N1 situations from 2008 to 2015, including one particular fatality; all of these circumstances were exposed to slaughtering of infected poultry [24?8]. Slaughtering sick birds is really a common practice in Bangladesh [13, 14]. Preventing rural raisers from consuming sick poultry appears complicated, title= journal.pone.0174109 because poultry are a valued resource for the raisers [29]. These low-income households recover a few of their monetary loss by consuming sick poultry [14], which seems to be a a lot more salient situation for these raisers than avoiding an improbable H5N1 infection.